'varnish'에 해당되는 글 2건

  1. 2010.06.01 Varnish VCL language 가이드 (1)
  2. 2010.02.22 Varnish HTTP accelerator (state-of-the-art)
2010.06.01 18:03

Varnish VCL language 가이드

I’ve been working with Varnish 2.0 for the last two weeks, going from complete n00b to someone who knows enough to feel I can improve the terrible lack of documentation for Varnish and VCL. There’s not a lot out there and what’s there is hard to find and sometimes erroneous. I’m hoping this post will help others like me who are struggling with Varnish and VCL.

Basics

VCL is essentially a set of stubs which you can override to provide your own behavior. It is very limited in what it can do, primarily for performance reasons. You don’t have access to the filesystem and the language has no variables or loops.

The two stubs you will most often use:

  • vcl_recv – called at the start of a request. This is primarily used to canonicalize the input URL and headers, determine whether to bypass the cache, etc.
  • vcl_fetch – called when the response has been gathered from the backend before placing it in the cache. You can configure a grace period, enable ESI processing, configure different TTLs, remove user-specific cookies, etc before inserting the response into the cache.

Examples

The Varnish VCL examples are rather sparse; here’s a few more which may fill in some gaps. These work with Varnish 2.0.4.

# If the requested URL starts like "/link/?" then immediately pass it to the given 
# backend and DO NOT cache the result ("pass" basically means "bypass the cache").
if (req.url ~ "^/link/\?") {
  set req.backend = web;
  pass;                                                                                                    
}
if (req.url ~ "/$") { 
  # Handle URLs with a trailing slash by appending index.html
  # (Useful if you are pulling from S3 which does not have default document logic)
  # Note there's no explicit string append operator.
  set req.url = req.url "index.html";
}
# strip port from the Host header
# (useful when testing against a local Varnish instance on port 6081)
set req.http.Host = regsub(req.http.Host, ":[0-9]+", "");
 
# /foo/bar.embed -> /foo/bar/embed.js
set req.url = regsub(req.url, "(.*)\.embed$", "\1/embed.js");
 
# Support feed URLs of the form "/foo/bar.atom" --> "/foo/bar/feed.atom"
if ((req.url ~ "\.(rss|atom)$") && !(req.url ~ "feed\.(atom|rss)$")) {
    set req.url = regsub(req.url, "(.*)\.(.*)$", "\1/feed.\2");
}

The biggest pain in all of this was the very limited logic you can perform on req.url. You don’t have variables in VCL so you need to think in terms of regular expression groups like in the RSS/ATOM regexp above when trying to restructure the URL.

  # use this in vcl_fetch, don't want 404s filling up our cache, so just 
  # immediately return a client error and bypass the cache.
  if (obj.status == 404) {
    error 404 "No such file";
  }

Resources

Here’s the best VCL resources I could find:

Good luck!


출처 : www.mikeperham.com


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  1. anonymous 2012.04.03 16:34 address edit & del reply

    Don't forget to link the original link.
    http://www.mikeperham.com/2009/05/19/a-guide-to-varnish-vcl/

2010.02.22 20:40

Varnish HTTP accelerator (state-of-the-art)

VCL - Varnish configuation Language

The VCL language is a small domain-specific language designed to be used to define request handling and document caching policies for the Varnish HTTP accelerator. When a new configuration is loaded, the varnishd management process translates the VCL code to C and compiles it to a shared object which is then dynamically linked into the server process.

Examples

Other users have contributed examples from their VCLs to solve common problems.

Syntax overview

The VCL syntax is very simple, and deliberately similar to C and Perl. Blocks are delimited by curly braces,statements end with semicolons, and comments may be written as in C, C++ or Perl according to your own preferences.

  • In addition to the C-like assignment (=), comparison (==) and boolean (!, && and ||) operators, VCL supports regular expression and ACL matching using the ~ operator.
  • Unlike C and Perl, the backslash (\) character has no special meaning in strings in VCL, which use the (%xx) escape mechanism just like URLs, so it can be freely used in regular expressions without doubling.
  • Assignments are introduced with the set keyword. There are no user-defined variables; values can only be assigned to variables attached to backend, request or document objects. Most of these are typed, and the values assigned to them must have a compatible unit suffix.
  • VCL has if tests, but no loops.
  • The contents of another VCL file may be inserted at any point in the code by using the include keyword followed by the name of the other file as a quoted string.

Backend declarations

A backend declaration creates and initializes a named backend object:

backend www {
  .host = "www.example.com";
  .port = "http";
}

The backend object can later be used to select a backend at request time:

if (req.http.host ~ "^(www.)?example.com$") {
   set req.backend = www;
}

The timeout parameters can be overridden in the backend declaration. The timeout parameters are .connect_timeout for the time to wait for a backend connection, .first_byte_timeout for the time to wait for the first byte from the backend and .between_bytes_timeout for time to wait between each received byte.

These can be set in the declaration like this:

backend www {
   .host = "www.example.com";
   .port = "http";
   .connect_timeout = 1s;
   .first_byte_timeout = 5s;
   .between_bytes_timeout = 2s;
}

You can limit the amount of connections varnish will send to a backend like this:

backend www {
   .host = "www.example.com";
   .port = "http";
   .max_connections = 200; 
}

Directors

Directors choose from different backends based on health status and a per-director algorithm. There currently exists a round-robin and a random director.

Directors are defined using:

director b2 random {
    .retries = 5;
    {
     /* We can refer to named backends */
     .backend        = b1;
     .weight         = 7;
    }
    {
     /* Or define them inline */
     .backend        = {
         .host = "fs2";
     }
     .weight         = 3;
    }
}

The random director

The random director takes one per-director option .retries. This specifies how many tries it will use to find a working backend. The default is the same as the number of backends defined for the director.

There is also a per-backend option: weight which defines the portion of traffic to send to the particular backend.

The round-robin director

The round-robin does not take any options.

Backend probes

Backends can be probed to see whether they should be considered healthy or not. The return status can also be checked by using req.backend.healthy .window is how many of the latest polls we examine, while .threshold is how many of those must have succeeded for us to consider the backend healthy.

backend www {
   .host = "www.example.com";
   .port = "http";
   .probe = {
     .url = "/test.jpg";
     .timeout = 0.3 s;
     .window = 8;
     .threshold = 3;
   }
}

It is also possible to specify the raw HTTP request.

backend www {
   .host = "www.example.com";
   .port = "http";
   .probe = {
     # NB: \r\n automatically inserted after each string!
     .request ==
       "GET / HTTP/1.1"
       "Host: www.foo.bar"
       "Connection: close";
   }
}

ACLs

An ACL declaration creates and initializes a named access control list which can later be used to match client addresses:

acl local {
    "localhost"; /* myself */
    "192.0.2.0"/24; /* and everyone on the local network */
    ! "192.0.2.23"; /* except for the dialin router */
}

If an ACL entry specifies a host name which Varnish is unable to resolve, it will match any address it is compared to. Consequently, if it is preceded by a negation mark, it will reject any address it is compared to, which may not be what you intended. If the entry is enclosed in parentheses, however, it will simply be ignored.

To match an IP address against an ACL, simply use the match operator:

if (client.ip ~ local) {
   pipe;
}

Grace

If the backend takes a long time to generate an object there is a risk of a thread pile up. In order to prevent this you can enable grace. This allows varnish to serve an expired version of the object while a fresh object is being generated by the backend.

The following vcl code will make Varnish serve expired objects. All object will be kept up to two minutes past their expiration time or a fresh object is generated.

sub vcl_recv {
    set req.grace = 2m;
}

sub vcl_fetch {
    set obj.grace = 2m;
}

Functions

The following built-in functions are available:

regsub(str, regex, sub)

Returns a copy of str with the first occurrence of the regular expression regex replaced with sub. Within sub, \0 (which can also be spelled &) is replaced with the entire matched string, and \n is replaced with the contents of subgroup n in the matched string. VCL uses your libc's extended expression support, which in most cases is POSIX Extended Regular Expressions.

regsuball(str, regex, sub)

As regsub() but this replaces all occurrences.

purge( str )

Purge objects based on a list of conditions. For the purge to happen, every condition must be met. For example:

  purge( "req.url == / && obj.http.foo ~ bar" );

See VCLExamplePurging for more code examples

purge_url(regex)

Purge all objects in cache whose URLs match regex. For example:

  purge_url( "^/foo$" );

See VCLExamplePurging for more code examples

purge_hash(regex)

Purge all objects in cache whose hash strings match regex.

See VCLExamplePurging for more code examples

Subroutines

A subroutine is used to group code for legibility or reusability:

sub pipe_if_local {
    if (client.ip ~ local) {
       pipe;
    }
}

Subroutines in VCL do not take arguments, nor do they return values.

If multiple subroutines with the same name are defined, they are concatenated in the order in which the appear in the source.

To call a subroutine, use the call keyword followed by the subroutine’s name:

call pipe_if_local;

Special subroutines

There are a number of special subroutines which hook into the Varnish workflow. These subroutines may inspect and manipulate HTTP headers and various other aspects of each request, and to a certain extent decide how the request should be handled. Each subroutine terminates by calling one of a small number of keywords which indicates the desired outcome.

Graphical Overview

To see a description of the default VCL and to see a flow chart of how HTTP requests go through VCL please see the default VCL page.

vcl_recv

Called at the beginning of a request, after the complete request has been received and parsed. Its purpose is to decide whether or not to serve the request, how to do it, and, if applicable, which backend to use.

The vcl_recv subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

error code [reason]

Return the specified error code to the client and abandon the request.

pass

Switch to pass mode. Control will eventually pass to vcl_pass.

pipe

Switch to pipe mode. Control will eventually pass to vcl_pipe.

lookup

Look up the requested object in the cache. Control will eventually pass to vcl_hit or vcl_miss, depending on whether the object is in the cache.

vcl_pipe

Called upon entering pipe mode. In this mode, the request is passed on to the backend, and any further data from either client or backend is passed on unaltered until either end closes the connection.

The vcl_pipe subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

error code [reason]

Return the specified error code to the client and abandon the request.

pipe

Proceed with pipe mode.

vcl_pass

Called upon entering pass mode. In this mode, the request is passed on to the backend, and the backend’s response is passed on to the client, but is not entered into the cache. Subsequent requests submitted over the same client connection are handled normally.

The vcl_pass subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

error code [reason]

Return the specified error code to the client and abandon the request.

pass

Proceed with pass mode.

Note: You must have a backend selected by the end of the vcl_pass function, otherwise you'll get a 503 response, as Varnish won't know where to direct the request.

vcl_hash

Use req.hash += req.http.Set-Cookie or similar to include the Set-Cookie HTTP header in the hash string. The vcl_hash subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

hash

Proceed.

vcl_hit

Called after a cache lookup if the requested document was found in the cache.

The vcl_hit subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

error code [reason]

Return the specified error code to the client and abandon the request.

pass

Switch to pass mode. Control will eventually pass to vcl_pass.

deliver

Deliver the cached object to the client. Control will eventually pass to vcl_deliver.

vcl_miss

Called after a cache lookup if the requested document was not found in the cache. Its purpose is to decide whether or not to attempt to retrieve the document from the backend, and which backend to use.

The vcl_miss subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

error code [reason]

Return the specified error code to the client and abandon the request.

pass

Switch to pass mode. Control will eventually pass to vcl_pass.

fetch

Retrieve the requested object from the backend. Control will eventually pass to vcl_fetch.

vcl_fetch

Called after a document has been successfully retrieved from the backend.

The vcl_fetch subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

error code [reason]

Return the specified error code to the client and abandon the request.

pass

Switch to pass mode. Control will eventually pass to vcl_pass.

deliver

Possibly insert the object into the cache, then deliver it to the client. Control will eventually pass to vcl_deliver.

esi

ESI-process the document which has just been fetched.

vcl_deliver

Called before a cached object is delivered to the client.

The vcl_deliver subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

error code [reason]

Return the specified error code to the client and abandon the request.

deliver

Deliver the object to the client.

vcl_timeout

Called by the reaper thread shortly before a cached document reaches its expiry time.

The vcl_timeout subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

fetch

Request a fresh copy of the object from the backend.

discard

Discard the object.

vcl_discard

Called by the reaper thread when a cached document is about to be discarded, either because it has expired or because space is running low.

The vcl_discard subroutine may terminate with one of the following keywords:

discard

Discard the object.

keep

Keep the object in cache.

If one of these subroutines is left undefined or terminates without reaching a handling decision, control will be handed over to the builtin default. See the EXAMPLES section for a listing of the default code.

vcl_error

XXX - needs documentation.

Variables

Although subroutines take no arguments, the necessary information is made available to the handler subroutines through global variables.

The following variables are always available:

Global variables

now

The current time, in seconds since the epoch.

Backend declarations

The following variables are available in backend declarations:

.host

Host name or IP address of a backend.

.port

Service name or port number of a backend.

Hashing a request

The following variables are available while determining the hash key of an object:

req.

req.hash

The hash key used to refer to an object in the cache. Used when both reading from and writing to the cache.

Processing a request

The following variables are available while processing a request:

client.

client.ip

The client’s IP address.

server.

server.ip

The IP address of the socket on which the client connection was received.

server.port

The port number of the socket on which the client connection was received.

req.

req.request

The request type (e.g. "GET", "HEAD").

req.url

The requested URL.

req.proto

The HTTP protocol version used by the client.

req.backend

The backend to use to service the request.

req.backend.healthy

Whether the backend is healthy or not.

req.http.header

The corresponding HTTP header.

Preparing a backend request

The following variables are available while preparing a backend request (either for a cache miss or for pass or pipe mode):

bereq.

bereq.request

The request type (e.g. "GET", "HEAD").

bereq.url

The requested URL.

bereq.proto

The HTTP protocol version used to talk to the server.

bereq.http.header

The corresponding HTTP header.

bereq.connect_timeout

The time in seconds to wait for a backend connection.

bereq.first_byte_timeout

The time in seconds to wait for the first byte from the backend. Not available in pipe mode.

bereq.between_bytes_timeout

The time in seconds to wait between each received byte from the backend. Not available in pipe mode.

Cache hit or backend retrieval

obj.

The following variables are available after the requested object has been retrieved from cache or from the backend:

obj.hits

The number of hits an object has received.

obj.proto

The HTTP protocol version used when the object was retrieved.

obj.status

The HTTP status code returned by the server.

obj.response

The HTTP status message returned by the server.

obj.cacheable

True if the request resulted in a cacheable response. A response is considered cacheable if it is valid (see above), the HTTP status code is 200, 203, 300, 301, 302, 404 or 410 and it has a non-zero time-to-live when Expires and Cache-Control headers are taken into account.

obj.ttl

The object’s remaining time to live, in seconds.

obj.lastuse

The approximate time elapsed since the object was last requests, in seconds.

Preparing response

resp.

The following variables are available while preparing a response to the client:

resp.proto

The HTTP protocol version to use for the response.

resp.status

The HTTP status code that will be returned.

resp.response

The HTTP status message that will be returned.

resp.http.header

Values may be assigned to variables using the set keyword:

sub vcl_recv {
  # Normalize the Host: header
  if (req.http.host ~ "^(www.)?example.com$") {
     set req.http.host = "www.example.com";
  }
}

HTTP headers can be removed entirely using the remove keyword:

sub vcl_fetch {
  # Don’t cache cookies
  remove obj.http.Set-Cookie;
}

 

원문 : http://varnish-cache.org


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