'stp'에 해당되는 글 4건

  1. 2014.04.07 Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers (1)
  2. 2009.06.04 [STP] Spanning-tree Protocol (PVST, RSTP, MSTP)
  3. 2009.05.25 Catalyst 2960 Switch Command Reference
2014.04.07 18:20

Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers

Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers

DecimalKeyword Protocol IPv6 Extension Header Reference 
0HOPOPTIPv6 Hop-by-Hop OptionY[RFC2460]
1ICMPInternet Control Message[RFC792]
2IGMPInternet Group Management[RFC1112]
3GGPGateway-to-Gateway[RFC823]
4IPv4IPv4 encapsulation[RFC2003]
5STStream[RFC1190][RFC1819]
6TCPTransmission Control[RFC793]
7CBTCBT[Tony_Ballardie]
8EGPExterior Gateway Protocol[RFC888][David_Mills]
9IGPany private interior gateway (used by Cisco for their IGRP)[Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority]
10BBN-RCC-MONBBN RCC Monitoring[Steve_Chipman]
11NVP-IINetwork Voice Protocol[RFC741][Steve_Casner]
12PUPPUP[Boggs, D., J. Shoch, E. Taft, and R. Metcalfe, "PUP: An Internetwork Architecture", XEROX Palo Alto Research Center, CSL-79-10, July 1979; also in IEEE Transactions on Communication, Volume COM-28, Number 4, April 1980.][[XEROX]]
13ARGUSARGUS[Robert_W_Scheifler]
14EMCONEMCON[<mystery contact>]
15XNETCross Net Debugger[Haverty, J., "XNET Formats for Internet Protocol Version 4", IEN 158, October 1980.][Jack_Haverty]
16CHAOSChaos[J_Noel_Chiappa]
17UDPUser Datagram[RFC768][Jon_Postel]
18MUXMultiplexing[Cohen, D. and J. Postel, "Multiplexing Protocol", IEN 90, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1979.][Jon_Postel]
19DCN-MEASDCN Measurement Subsystems[David_Mills]
20HMPHost Monitoring[RFC869][Bob_Hinden]
21PRMPacket Radio Measurement[Zaw_Sing_Su]
22XNS-IDPXEROX NS IDP["The Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specification", AA-K759B-TK, Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, MA. Also as: "The Ethernet - A Local Area Network", Version 1.0, Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, Xerox Corporation, September 1980. And: "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications", Digital, Intel and Xerox, November 1982. And: XEROX, "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specification", X3T51/80-50, Xerox Corporation, Stamford, CT., October 1980.][[XEROX]]
23TRUNK-1Trunk-1[Barry_Boehm]
24TRUNK-2Trunk-2[Barry_Boehm]
25LEAF-1Leaf-1[Barry_Boehm]
26LEAF-2Leaf-2[Barry_Boehm]
27RDPReliable Data Protocol[RFC908][Bob_Hinden]
28IRTPInternet Reliable Transaction[RFC938][Trudy_Miller]
29ISO-TP4ISO Transport Protocol Class 4[RFC905][<mystery contact>]
30NETBLTBulk Data Transfer Protocol[RFC969][David_Clark]
31MFE-NSPMFE Network Services Protocol[Shuttleworth, B., "A Documentary of MFENet, a National Computer Network", UCRL-52317, Lawrence Livermore Labs, Livermore, California, June 1977.][Barry_Howard]
32MERIT-INPMERIT Internodal Protocol[Hans_Werner_Braun]
33DCCPDatagram Congestion Control Protocol[RFC4340]
343PCThird Party Connect Protocol[Stuart_A_Friedberg]
35IDPRInter-Domain Policy Routing Protocol[Martha_Steenstrup]
36XTPXTP[Greg_Chesson]
37DDPDatagram Delivery Protocol[Wesley_Craig]
38IDPR-CMTPIDPR Control Message Transport Proto[Martha_Steenstrup]
39TP++TP++ Transport Protocol[Dirk_Fromhein]
40ILIL Transport Protocol[Dave_Presotto]
41IPv6IPv6 encapsulation[RFC2473]
42SDRPSource Demand Routing Protocol[Deborah_Estrin]
43IPv6-RouteRouting Header for IPv6Y[Steve_Deering]
44IPv6-FragFragment Header for IPv6Y[Steve_Deering]
45IDRPInter-Domain Routing Protocol[Sue_Hares]
46RSVPReservation Protocol[RFC2205][RFC3209][Bob_Braden]
47GREGeneric Routing Encapsulation[RFC1701][Tony_Li]
48DSRDynamic Source Routing Protocol[RFC4728]
49BNABNA[Gary Salamon]
50ESPEncap Security PayloadY[RFC4303]
51AHAuthentication HeaderY[RFC4302]
52I-NLSPIntegrated Net Layer Security TUBA[K_Robert_Glenn]
53SWIPEIP with Encryption[John_Ioannidis]
54NARPNBMA Address Resolution Protocol[RFC1735]
55MOBILEIP Mobility[Charlie_Perkins]
56TLSPTransport Layer Security Protocol using Kryptonet key management[Christer_Oberg]
57SKIPSKIP[Tom_Markson]
58IPv6-ICMPICMP for IPv6[RFC2460]
59IPv6-NoNxtNo Next Header for IPv6[RFC2460]
60IPv6-OptsDestination Options for IPv6Y[RFC2460]
61any host internal protocol[Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority]
62CFTPCFTP[Forsdick, H., "CFTP", Network Message, Bolt Beranek and Newman, January 1982.][Harry_Forsdick]
63any local network[Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority]
64SAT-EXPAKSATNET and Backroom EXPAK[Steven_Blumenthal]
65KRYPTOLANKryptolan[Paul Liu]
66RVDMIT Remote Virtual Disk Protocol[Michael_Greenwald]
67IPPCInternet Pluribus Packet Core[Steven_Blumenthal]
68any distributed file system[Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority]
69SAT-MONSATNET Monitoring[Steven_Blumenthal]
70VISAVISA Protocol[Gene_Tsudik]
71IPCVInternet Packet Core Utility[Steven_Blumenthal]
72CPNXComputer Protocol Network Executive[David Mittnacht]
73CPHBComputer Protocol Heart Beat[David Mittnacht]
74WSNWang Span Network[Victor Dafoulas]
75PVPPacket Video Protocol[Steve_Casner]
76BR-SAT-MONBackroom SATNET Monitoring[Steven_Blumenthal]
77SUN-NDSUN ND PROTOCOL-Temporary[William_Melohn]
78WB-MONWIDEBAND Monitoring[Steven_Blumenthal]
79WB-EXPAKWIDEBAND EXPAK[Steven_Blumenthal]
80ISO-IPISO Internet Protocol[Marshall_T_Rose]
81VMTPVMTP[Dave_Cheriton]
82SECURE-VMTPSECURE-VMTP[Dave_Cheriton]
83VINESVINES[Brian Horn]
84TTPTransaction Transport Protocol[Jim_Stevens]
84IPTMInternet Protocol Traffic Manager[Jim_Stevens]
85NSFNET-IGPNSFNET-IGP[Hans_Werner_Braun]
86DGPDissimilar Gateway Protocol[M/A-COM Government Systems, "Dissimilar Gateway Protocol Specification, Draft Version", Contract no. CS901145, November 16, 1987.][Mike_Little]
87TCFTCF[Guillermo_A_Loyola]
88EIGRPEIGRP[Cisco Systems, "Gateway Server Reference Manual", Manual Revision B, January 10, 1988.][Guenther_Schreiner]
89OSPFIGPOSPFIGP[RFC1583][RFC2328][RFC5340][John_Moy]
90Sprite-RPCSprite RPC Protocol[Welch, B., "The Sprite Remote Procedure Call System", Technical Report, UCB/Computer Science Dept., 86/302, University of California at Berkeley, June 1986.][Bruce Willins]
91LARPLocus Address Resolution Protocol[Brian Horn]
92MTPMulticast Transport Protocol[Susie_Armstrong]
93AX.25AX.25 Frames[Brian_Kantor]
94IPIPIP-within-IP Encapsulation Protocol[John_Ioannidis]
95MICPMobile Internetworking Control Pro.[John_Ioannidis]
96SCC-SPSemaphore Communications Sec. Pro.[Howard_Hart]
97ETHERIPEthernet-within-IP Encapsulation[RFC3378]
98ENCAPEncapsulation Header[RFC1241][Robert_Woodburn]
99any private encryption scheme[Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority]
100GMTPGMTP[[RXB5]]
101IFMPIpsilon Flow Management Protocol[Bob_Hinden][November 1995, 1997.]
102PNNIPNNI over IP[Ross_Callon]
103PIMProtocol Independent Multicast[RFC4601][Dino_Farinacci]
104ARISARIS[Nancy_Feldman]
105SCPSSCPS[Robert_Durst]
106QNXQNX[Michael_Hunter]
107A/NActive Networks[Bob_Braden]
108IPCompIP Payload Compression Protocol[RFC2393]
109SNPSitara Networks Protocol[Manickam_R_Sridhar]
110Compaq-PeerCompaq Peer Protocol[Victor_Volpe]
111IPX-in-IPIPX in IP[CJ_Lee]
112VRRPVirtual Router Redundancy Protocol[RFC5798]
113PGMPGM Reliable Transport Protocol[Tony_Speakman]
114any 0-hop protocol[Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority]
115L2TPLayer Two Tunneling Protocol[RFC3931][Bernard_Aboba]
116DDXD-II Data Exchange (DDX)[John_Worley]
117IATPInteractive Agent Transfer Protocol[John_Murphy]
118STPSchedule Transfer Protocol[Jean_Michel_Pittet]
119SRPSpectraLink Radio Protocol[Mark_Hamilton]
120UTIUTI[Peter_Lothberg]
121SMPSimple Message Protocol[Leif_Ekblad]
122SMSimple Multicast Protocol[Jon_Crowcroft][draft-perlman-simple-multicast]
123PTPPerformance Transparency Protocol[Michael_Welzl]
124ISIS over IPv4[Tony_Przygienda]
125FIRE[Criag_Partridge]
126CRTPCombat Radio Transport Protocol[Robert_Sautter]
127CRUDPCombat Radio User Datagram[Robert_Sautter]
128SSCOPMCE[Kurt_Waber]
129IPLT[[Hollbach]]
130SPSSecure Packet Shield[Bill_McIntosh]
131PIPEPrivate IP Encapsulation within IP[Bernhard_Petri]
132SCTPStream Control Transmission Protocol[Randall_R_Stewart]
133FCFibre Channel[Murali_Rajagopal][RFC6172]
134RSVP-E2E-IGNORE[RFC3175]
135Mobility HeaderY[RFC6275]
136UDPLite[RFC3828]
137MPLS-in-IP[RFC4023]
138manetMANET Protocols[RFC5498]
139HIPHost Identity ProtocolY[RFC5201]
140Shim6Shim6 ProtocolY[RFC5533]
141WESPWrapped Encapsulating Security Payload[RFC5840]
142ROHCRobust Header Compression[RFC5858]
143-252Unassigned[Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority]
253Use for experimentation and testingY[RFC3692]
254Use for experimentation and testingY[RFC3692]
255Reserved[Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority]



출처 : iana.org


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  1. 2014.04.07 18:22 address edit & del reply

    비밀댓글입니다

2009.06.04 14:44

[STP] Spanning-tree Protocol (PVST, RSTP, MSTP)

STP

Spanning Tree Protocol은 Digital Equipment Corporation(DEC)에 의해 최초로 개발되었다.
DEC STP Algorism이 IEEE802 협회에 의해 바뀌게 되었고 IEEE802.1d로 발표되었다.
DEC와 IEEE 802.1d Algorism은 같지 않고 호환성도 없다.
Cisco Catalyst1900과 2950은 IEEE820.d STP를 사용한다.

- STP의 목적은 L2환경에서 Loop이 없는 Network을 유지하는 것이다.
- Loop이 없는 Topology는 스위치나 브리지가 Loop를 인식해야하고, 인식했을때 논리적으로 하나이상의 Redundant한 Port를 자동적으로 차단하므로 구현된다.
- STP를 구동하는 스위치나 브리지는 스위치나 브리지의 추가 혹은 Failure등, Network Topology에 변화가 생겼을 때 자동적으로 인식한다.

Spanning Tree Protocol의 절차

- Network 당 하나의 Root Bridge선정
- Root Bridge가 아닌 Bridge 각각에서 하나의 Root Port선정
- 각각의 Segment에서 하나의 Designated Port선정

이러한 세가지 절차를 거친후 Root Port도 아니고 Designated Port도 아닌 Port는 Blocking된다.

Root Port 선출 기준

1. Root Bridge 에 이르는 Path Cost가 낮은 Port.
2. 같다면 Port에 연결된 Bridge의 ID가 낮은 Port.
3. 이것도 같으면 각 Port의 Port ID가 낮은 Port가 선출된다.

Designated Port 선출기준

1. Port Bridge에 이르는 Path Cost가 낮은 Port.
2. 같다면 Port의 해당 Bridge의 ID가 낮은 Port.
3. 이것도 같다면 각 Port의 Port ID가 낮은 Port가 선출된다.

PVST

Spanning Tree Protocol 의 한 타입

스패닝 트리 프로토콜은 브리징 루프를 방지하기 위해 스패닝 트리라는 트리 구조를 만든다. 그런데 전통적으로 사용하는 스패닝 트리는 VLAN 과는 상관없이 물리적 구조(스위치의 트렁크 링크로 연결된)를 바탕으로 하기 때문에 단 하나의 트리만을 만들어 버린다.

이럴 경우 이 물리적 트리구조에 일부분만을 차지하는 VLAN 은 어쩔 수 없이 하나로 이루어진 전체 트리를 바탕으로 운용되고 때에 따라서는 부적절한 구조를 형성할 수도 있다. 이런 형식을 Common Spanning Tree 라 한다.

이를 보완하기 위해 트리를 VLAN 마다 트리를 만들고 독자적으로 스패닝 트리 알고리즘을 수행한다. 이를 PVST(Per VLAN Spanning Tree) 라 한다.

그런데 이 PVST는 CST와 공존할 수 없고 서로의 STP BPDU를 이해할 수가 없다.

그래서 만들어진 것이 PVST+다. 이 PVST+는 CST 에서 받은 정보를 PVST로 보낼 때 VLAN마다 반복해서 보내는 작업을 하거나 터널링을 해서 떨어진 PVST간에 연결을 하게 한다.

1. Common Spanning Tree (CST)는 IEEE 802.1Q의 Spanning Tree Protocol로 모든 VLAN에 대해서 하나의 Spanning Tree를 정의한다. BPDU 정보는 VLAN 1위에서 송수신 된다.
- 모든 스위치가 하나의 루트 브리지를 선출하여 루트 브리지를 기준으로 Forwarding, Blocking State를 결정한다.
- CST advantages

2. BPDU가 적게 발생하여 Bandwidth를 절약한다.

3. Switch에 processing overhead가 적다.
- CST disadvantages

4. 하나의 root bridge 만을 기준으로 하기 때문에, 부적절한 Forwarding Path가 설정될 수 있다.

5. Spanning-tree topology가 모든 스위치에 걸쳐서 형성되어 크기가 커지며 따라서 Convergence Time이 오래 걸릴 수 있고, Topology의 변화에 따는 잦은 Spnning Tree Recalculation이 발생할 수 있다.

6. VLAN이 Partition 될 수 있다.

Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST)는 Cisco-proprietary한 Implementation으로 PVST가 작동하기 위해서는 Inter-switch Link (ISL) encapsulation으로 Trunking 되어 있어야 한다. PVST는 각 VLAN별로 별도의 Spanning Tree가 작동한다.

-Flexible한 Traffic Management를 할 수 있다.
-VLAN(Subnet) Basis로 Forwarding Path를 조절할 수 있다.(Load Balancing을 할 수 있다.)
-간단한 Layer 2 Redundancy를 제공한다.

PVST+는 CST Information이 PVST로 전달되게 하는 시스코 전용의 Implementation이다.

-Cisco PVST+는 PVST Frame을 Multicast Frame으로 Encapsulation하여 CST Network을 통과시킨다.



=====STP (spanning-treee protocol) (802.1d) PVST=====

 (IEEE)
   ==> 1, 시간 (RSTP) 802.1W
   ==> 2, CPU (MST)  802.1S

(CISCO)
   ==> 1. 시간 portfast, uplinkfast, backbonfast   



=====STP 계산법 (listen) 15sec=====

1. Root bridge선출 (vlan 마다)
    (priority(32768) ==> MAC) 낮은값

2. Root port선출 (non-root bridge마다)
    (cost ==> port-id(sender-id)) 낮은값  (100M 19  10M 100)

3. Designated port선출 (segment 마다)
    (cost ==> priority ===> MAC)

 

===== Port status =====

1. Blocking (Max-age) 20sec
2. listen (STP계산) 15sec
3. learn (MAC 학습) 15sec
4. forwarding

 

===== Port role =====

1. designated port (BPDU 송신)
2. root port             (BPDU 수신)
3. blocking port  traffic차단 (BPDU 수신)



===== Root bride 조정 =====

 config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 priority  4096 (default 32768) (4096 단위로 조정 0 ~ 61440)

 config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 root primary
               spanning-tree vlan 1 root secondary

Verify

config)# show spanning-tree vlan x brief

 

===== Root port 조정 ===== (cost, port-priority(sender))

SW1
 config-if)#spanning-tree vlan 1 cost 19
SW2
 config-if)#spanning-tree vlan 1 port-priority 128


Verify

config)# show spanning-tree vlan x brief
config)# show spanning-tree root brief

 

==== RSTP (802.1W) =====

root port
designated port
alternative port (root port), backup port (designated port)
edge port (listen, learn)생략
proposal, agreement
TC 직접 설정

config)#spanning-tree rapid-pvst

 

===== MSTP (802.1S) ======

MST (name, revision, group)
mst config   
config)# spanning-tree mode mst  ==> (RSTP 자동 enable)
config)# spanning-tree mst configuration
config)# name BCMSN
config)# revision 1
config)# instance 1 vlan 1 - 500
config)# instance 2 vlan 501 - 1000
  
ROOT bridge 조정
config)# spanning-tree mst 1 root primary
config)# spanning-tree mst 2 root secondary
     
ROOT port 조정
config)# spanning-tree mst 2 cost 20000
     
Verify
config)# show spanning-tree mst 1
config)# show spanning-tree mst configuration



sw0

>en
#conf t
config#vtp mode server
config#domain switch
config#exit
>sh vtp status
>en
#conf t
config#vlan 10
config-vlan#exit
config#vlan 20
config-vlan#exit
config#vlan 30
config-vlan#exit
#sh vtp status
#conf t
config#int fa0/1
config-if#switchport mode trunk
config-if#exit
config#int fa0/2
config-if#switchport mode trunk
config-if#exit
config#int fa 0/5
config-if#switchport access vlan 10
config-if#switch mode access
config-if#spanning-tree portfast
config-if#exit
config#int fa0/6
config-if#switch access vlan 20
config-if#switch mode access
config-if#spanning-tree portfast
config-if#exit
config#int fa0/7
config-if#sw ac vlan 30
config-if#spa p
config-if#exit
config#exit
#sh spanning-tree
#sh vtp status
#sh vlan
#conf t
config#spanning-tree vlan 10 priority 4096
config#exit
config#sh spanning-tree

sw1

>en
#conf t
config#vtp mode client
config#vtp domain switch
config#exit
#sh vtp status
#conf t
config#int fa0/1
config-if#switchport mode trunk
config-if#exit
config#int fa0/2
config-if#switchport mode trunk
config-if#exit
config#exit
#sh vtp status
#sh spanning-tree
#sh vlan
#conf t
config#int fa0/5
config-if#switchport access vlan 10
config-if#switch mode access
config-if#spanning-tree portfast
config-if#exit
config#int fa0/6
config-if#switch access vlan 20
config-if#switch mode access
config-if#spanning-tree portfast
config-if#exit
config#int fa0/7
config-if#switch access vlan 30
config-if#switch mode access
config-if#spanning-tree portfast
config-if#exit
config#exit
#sh vlan
#conf t
config#spanning-tree vlan 20 priority 4096
config#exit
config#sh spanning-tree

sw2

>en
#conf t
config#vtp mode client
config#vtp domain switch
config#exit
#sh vtp status
#conf t
config#int fa0/1
config-if#switchport mode trunk
config-if#exit
config#int fa0/2
config-if#switchport mode trunk
config-if#exit
config#exit
#sh vtp status
#conf t
config#int fa0/5
config-if#switchport access vlan 10
config-if#switch mode access
config-if#spanning-tree portfast
config-if#exit
config#int fa0/6
config-if#switch access vlan 20
config-if#switch mode access
config-if#spanning-tree portfast
config-if#exit
config#int fa0/7
config-if#switch access vlan 30
config-if#switch mode access
config-if#spanning-tree portfast
config-if#exit
config#exit
#sh vlan
#conf t
config#spanning-tree vlan 30 priority 4096
config#exit
config#sh spanning-tree


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2009.05.25 23:09

Catalyst 2960 Switch Command Reference

Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SEE
February 2006

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Catalyst 2960 Switch Command Reference
Copyright © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.



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